Certain transactions require disclosure to the IRS to avoid penalties. A listing of these transactions can be found below:
Transactions that are the same as or substantially similar to one of the types of transactions described in the list below have been determined by the Service to be tax avoidance transactions and are “listed transactions” for purposes of § 1.6011-4(b)(2) and §§ 6111, 6112, 6662A, 6707, 6707A and 6708. As a result, taxpayers may need to disclose their participation in these listed transactions as prescribed in § 1.6011-4, and material advisors may need to disclose these transactions under § 301.6111-3 of the Procedure and Administration Regulations. Taxpayers who fail to disclose may be subject to penalties under §§ 6662A and 6707A. Material advisors who fail to disclose may be subject to penalties under § 6707. In addition, material advisors must maintain lists of advisees and other information with respect to these listed transactions pursuant to § 301.6112-1. Material advisors who fail to furnish a list as required under § 301.6112-1 may be subject to penalties under § 6708.
(1)Rev. Rul. 90-105, 1990-2 C.B. 69 (transactions in which taxpayers claim deductions for contributions to a qualified cash or deferred arrangement or matching contributions to a defined contribution plan where the contributions are attributable to compensation earned by plan participants after the end of the taxable year (identified as “listed transactions” on February 28, 2000)). See also Rev. Rul. 2002-46, 2002-2 C.B. 117 (result is the same, and transactions are substantially similar, even though the contributions are designated as satisfying a liability established before the end of the taxable year), modified by Rev. Rul. 2002-73, 2002-2 C.B. 805;
(2)Notice 95-34, 1995-1 C.B. 309 (certain trust arrangements purported to qualify as multiple employer welfare benefit funds exempt from the limits of §§ 419 and 419A (identified as “listed transactions” on February 28, 2000)). See also § 1.419A(f)(6)-1 (10 or more employer plans);
(3)Transactions substantially similar to those at issue in ASA Investerings Partnership v. Commissioner , 201 F.3d 505 [85 AFTR 2d 2000-675] (D.C. Cir. 2000), and ACM Partnership v. Commissioner, 157 F.3d 231 [82 AFTR 2d 98-6682] (3d Cir. 1998) (transactions involving contingent installment sales of securities by partnerships in order to accelerate and allocate income to a tax-indifferent partner, such as a tax-exempt entity or foreign person, and to allocate later losses to another partner (identified as “listed transactions” on February 28, 2000));
(4)Section 1.643(a)-8 (transactions involving distributions described in §1.643(a)-8 from charitable remainder trusts (identified as “listed transactions” on February 28, 2000));
(5)Notice 99-59, 1999-2 C.B. 761 (transactions involving the distribution of encumbered property in which taxpayers claim tax losses for capital outlays that they have in fact recovered (identified as “listed transactions” on February 28, 2000)). See also § 1.301-1(g);
(6) Section 1.7701(l)-3 (transactions involving fast-pay arrangements as defined in § 1.7701(l)-3(b) (identified as “listed transactions” on February 28, 2000)); (7) Rev. Rul. 2000-12, 2000-1 C.B. 744 (certain transactions involving the acquisition of two debt instruments the values of which are expected to change significantly at about the same time in opposite directions (identified as “listed transactions” on February 28, 2000)); (8) Notice 2000-44, 2000-2 C.B. 255 (transactions generating losses resulting from artificially inflating the basis of partnership interests (identified as “listed transactions” on August 11, 2000)). See also §§ 1.752-1(a), 1.752-6, and 1.752-7;
(7) Revenue Ruling 2000-12 - Debt Straddles (certain transactions involving the acquisition of two debt instruments the values of which are expected to change significantly at about the same time in opposite directions (identified as “listed transactions” on February 28, 2000))
(8) Notice 2000-44 - Inflated Partnership Basis Transactions (Son of Boss) (transactions generating losses resulting from artificially inflating the basis of partnership interests (identified as “listed transactions” on August 11, 2000)). See also § 1.752-6T of the temporary Income Tax Regulations and §§ 1.752-1(a) and 1.752-7 of the proposed Income Tax Regulations;
Son of Boss Settlement Initiative
(9) Notice 2000-60, 2000-2 C.B. 568 (transactions involving the purchase of a parent corporation's stock by a subsidiary, a subsequent transfer of the purchased parent stock from the subsidiary to the parent's employees, and the eventual liquidation or sale of the subsidiary (identified as “listed transactions” on November 16, 2000));
(10) Notice 2000-61, 2000-2 C.B. 569 (transactions purporting to apply § 935 to Guamanian trusts (identified as “listed transactions” on November 21, 2000));
(11) Notice 2001-16, 2001-1 C.B. 730 (transactions involving the use of an intermediary to sell the assets of a corporation (identified as “listed transactions” on January 18, 2001)). Notice 2008-111, 2008-51 I.R.B. 1299, clarifies Notice 2001-16 and supersedes Notice 2008-20, 2008-1 C.B. 406;
(12) Notice 2001-17, 2001-1 C.B. 730 (transactions involving a loss on the sale of stock acquired in a purported § 351 transfer of a high basis asset to a corporation and the corporation's assumption of a liability that the transferor has not yet taken into account for federal income tax purposes (identified as “listed transactions” on January 18, 2001));
(13) Notice 2001-45, 2001-2 C.B. 129 (certain redemptions of stock in transactions not subject to U.S. tax in which the basis of the redeemed stock is purported to shift to a U.S. taxpayer (identified as “listed transactions” on July 26, 2001));
(14) Notice 2002-21, 2002-1 C.B. 730 (transactions involving the use of a loan assumption agreement to inflate basis in assets acquired from another party to claim losses (identified as “listed transactions” on March 18, 2002);
(15) Notice 2002-35, 2002-1 C.B. 992 (transactions involving the use of a notional principal contract to claim current deductions for periodic payments made by a taxpayer while disregarding the accrual of a right to receive offsetting payments in the future (identified as “listed transactions” on May 6, 2002)). Notice 2006-16, 2006-1 C.B. 538, clarifies and modifies Notice 2002-35; (16) Notice 2002-50, 2002-2 C.B. 98 (transactions involving the use of a straddle, a tiered partnership structure, a transitory partner, and the absence of a § 754 election to claim a permanent noneconomic loss (identified as “listed transactions” on June 25, 2002)); Notice 2002-65, 2002-2 C.B. 690 (transactions involving the use of a straddle, an S corporation or a partnership, and one or more transitory shareholders or partners to claim a loss while deferring an offsetting gain are substantially similar to transactions described in Notice 2002-50); and Notice 2003-54, 2003-2 C.B. 363 (transactions involving the use of economically offsetting positions, one or more tax indifferent parties, and the common trust fund accounting rules of § 584 to allow a taxpayer to claim a noneconomic loss are substantially similar to transactions described in Notice 2002-50 and Notice 2002-65);
(17) Rev. Rul. 2002-69, 2002-2 C.B. 760, modifying and superseding Rev. Rul. 99-14, 1999-1 C.B. 835 (transactions in which a taxpayer purports to lease property and then purports to immediately sublease it back to the lessor (often referred to as “lease-in/lease-out” or “LILO” transactions) (identified as “listed transactions” on February 28, 2000));
(18) Rev. Rul. 2003-6, 2003-1 C.B. 286 (certain arrangements involving the transfer of employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs) that hold stock in an S corporation for the purpose of claiming eligibility for the delayed effective date of § 409(p) (identified as “listed transactions” on December 17, 2002));
(19) Notice 2003-22, 2003-1 C.B. 851 (certain arrangements involving leasing companies that have been used to avoid or evade federal income and employment taxes (identified as “listed transactions” on April 4, 2003));
(20) Notice 2003-24, 2003-1 C.B. 853 (certain arrangements that purportedly qualify as collectively-bargained welfare benefit funds excepted from the account limits of §§ 419 and 419A (identified as “listed transactions” on April 11, 2003));
(21) Notice 2003-47, 2003-2 C.B. 132 (transactions involving compensatory stock options and related persons to avoid or evade federal income and employment taxes (identified as “listed transactions” on July 1, 2003));
(22) Notice 2003-55, 2003-2 C.B. 395 (transactions in which one participant claims to realize rental or other income from property or service contracts and another participant claims the deductions related to that income (often referred to as “lease strips”)), modifying and superseding Notice 95-53, 1995-2 C.B. 334 (identified as “listed transactions” on February 28, 2000); (23) Notice 2003-77, 2003-2 C.B. 1182 (certain transactions that use contested liability trusts improperly to accelerate deductions for contested liabilities under § 461(f) (identified as “listed transactions” on November 19, 2003)). See also § 1.461-2. See Rev. Proc. 2004-31, 2004-1 C.B. 986, for procedures which taxpayers must use to change their methods of accounting for deducting under § 461(f) amounts transferred to trusts in transactions described in Notice 2003-77;
(24) Notice 2003-81, 2003-2 C.B. 1223 (certain transactions in which a taxpayer claims a loss upon the assignment of a purported § 1256 contract to a charity but fails to report the recognition of gain when the taxpayer's obligation under an offsetting non- section 1256 contract terminates (identified as “listed transactions” on December 4, 2003)). Notice 2007-71, 2007-2 C.B. 472, modified and supplemented Notice 2003-81;
(25) Notice 2004-8, 2004-1 C.B. 333 (certain transactions designed to avoid the limitations on contributions to Roth IRAs described in § 408A (identified as “listed transactions” on December 31, 2003));
(26) Rev. Rul. 2004-4, 2004-1 C.B. 414 (transactions that involve segregating the business profits of an ESOP-owned S corporation in a qualified subchapter S subsidiary, so that rank-and-file employees do not benefit from participation in the ESOP (identified as “listed transactions” on January 23, 2004)); (27) Situation 2 of Rev. Rul. 2004-20, 2004-1 C.B. 546, modifying and superseding Rev. Rul. 55-748, 1955-2 C.B. 234 (certain arrangements in which an employer deducts contributions to a qualified pension plan used to pay premiums on life insurance contracts that provide for death benefits in excess of the participant's death benefit, where under the terms of the plan, the balance of the death benefit proceeds revert to the plan as a return on investment) (identified as “listed transactions” on February 13, 2004)). See also Rev. Rul. 2004-21, 2004-1 C.B. 544, §§ 1.79-1(d)(3), 1.83-3(e) and 1.402(a)-1(a)(1) and (2), and Rev. Proc. 2005-25, 2005-1 C.B. 962, modifying and superseding Rev. Proc. 2004-16, 2004-1 C.B. 559;
(27) Notice 2004-20 - Abusive Foreign Tax Credit Transactions - (transactions in which, pursuant to a prearranged plan, a domestic corporation purports to acquire stock in a foreign target corporation and to make an election under § 338 before selling all or substantially all of the target corporation’s assets in a preplanned transaction that generates a taxable gain for foreign tax purposes (but not for U.S. tax purposes) (identified as “listed transactions” on February 17, 2004));
(28) Notice 2004-20, 2004-1 C.B. 608 (transactions in which, pursuant to a prearranged plan, a domestic corporation purports to acquire stock in a foreign target corporation and to make an election under § 338 before selling all or substantially all of the target corporation's assets in a preplanned transaction that generates a taxable gain for foreign tax purposes (but not for U.S. tax purposes) (identified as “listed transactions” on February 17, 2004));
(29) Notice 2004-30, 2004-1 C.B. 828 (transactions in which S corporation shareholders attempt to transfer the incidence of taxation on S corporation income by purportedly donating S corporation nonvoting stock to an exempt organization while retaining the economic benefits associated with that stock (identified as “listed transactions” on April 1, 2004));
(30) Notice 2004-31, 2004-1 C.B. 830 (transactions in which corporations claim inappropriate deductions for payments made through a partnership (identified as “listed transactions” on April 1, 2004)); (31) Notice 2005-13, 2005-1 C.B. 630 (transactions in which a taxpayer enters into a purported sale-lease-back arrangement with a tax-indifferent person in which substantially all of the tax-indifferent person's payment obligations are economically defeased and the taxpayer's risk of loss from a decline, and opportunity for profit from an increase, in the value of the leased property are limited (often referred to as “sale-in/lease out” or “SILO” transactions) (identified as “listed transactions” on February 11, 2005)); (32) Notice 2007-57, 2007-2 C.B. 87 (transactions in which a U.S. taxpayer uses offsetting positions with respect to foreign currency or other property for the purpose of importing a loss, but not the corresponding gain, in determining U.S. taxable income (identified as “listed transactions” on June 20, 2007)); (33) Notice 2007-83, 2007-2 C.B. 960 (certain arrangements involving a trust or other fund described in § 419(e)(3) that is purportedly a welfare benefit fund and pays premiums on one or more life insurance policies with respect to which value is accumulated, where the employer has deducted contributions in excess of specified amounts (identified as “listed transactions” on October 17, 2007));
(31) Notice 2005-13, Sale-In Lease-Out Transactions
(32) Notice 2007-57 - Loss Importation Transaction (IRB 2007-29) (transactions in which a U.S. taxpayer uses offsetting positions with respect to foreign currency or other property for the purpose of importing a loss, but not the corresponding gain, in determining U.S. taxable income (identified as “listed transactions” on July 16, 2007)).
(33) Notice 2007-83 - Abusive Trust Arrangements Utilizing Cash Value Life Insurance Policies Purportedly to Provide Welfare Benefits - 2007-45 I.R.B. 1 (transactions in which certain trust arrangements claiming to be welfare benefit funds and involving cash value life insurance policies that are being promoted to and used by taxpayers to improperly claim federal income and employment tax benefits (identified as “listed transactions” on October 17, 2007)).
(34) Notice 2008-34, 2008-12 I.R.B. 645 (transactions in which a tax indifferent party contributes one or more distressed assets with a high basis and low fair market value to a trust or series of trusts and sub-trusts, and a U.S. taxpayer acquires an interest in the trust (and/or series of trusts and/or sub-trusts) for the purpose of shifting a built-in loss from the tax indifferent party to the U.S. taxpayer that has not incurred the economic loss (identified as “listed transactions” on February 27, 2008)).
(35) Notice 2015-73 - Basket Option Contracts - This notice describes certain transactions involving a contract that is denominated as an option referencing a basket of actively traded personal property. The Basket Option Contract attempts to defer income recognition and convert short-term capital gain and ordinary income to long-term capital gain using a contract denominated as an option contract. This notice was published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin on November 16, 2015. This notice was previously listed under Notice 2015-47 which was revoked.
Additionally, the IRS has identified the following additional transactions that constitute reportable transactions:
1) A transaction that is offered under conditions of confidentiality and for which the taxpayer has paid an advisor a minimum fee ($250,000 for a transaction if the taxpayer is a corporation or all the owners of a partnership/trust are corporations, $50,000 for all other transactions): A transaction is considered to be offered to a taxpayer under conditions of confidentiality if the advisor who is paid the minimum fee places a limitation on disclosure by the taxpayer of the tax treatment or tax structure of the transaction and the limitation protects the confidentiality of that advisor's tax strategies. A transaction is treated as confidential even if the conditions of confidentiality are not legally binding on the taxpayer. A claim that a transaction is proprietary or exclusive isn't treated as a limitation on disclosure if the advisor confirms to the taxpayer that there is no limitation on disclosure of the tax treatment or tax structure of the transaction.
2) For purposes of the tax shelter reportable transaction rules a transaction with contractual protection is a transaction for which the taxpayer (or a related party within the meaning of Code Sec. 267(b) or Code Sec. 707(b) has the right to a full or partial refund of fees if all or part of the intended tax consequences from the transaction are not sustained. Also included is a transaction for which fees are contingent on the taxpayer's realization of tax benefits from the transaction. All of the facts and circumstances relating to the transaction will be considered in determining whether a fee is refundable or contingent, including the right to reimbursements of amounts that parties to the transaction have not designated as fees or any agreement to provide services without reasonable compensation.
3) A transaction resulting in a taxpayer claiming a loss under Code Sec. 165 of at least (a) $10 million in any single year or $20 million in any combination of years by a corporate taxpayer or by a partnership that has only corporations as partners; (b) $2 million in any single year or $4 million in any combination of years by an individual, an S corporation, a trust, or a partnership that has noncorporate partners; or (c) $50,000 in any single year for individuals or trusts if the loss arises from foreign currency transaction losses.
4) The new reportable transaction category Transaction of Interest (TOI) is defined as a transaction that the IRS and the Treasury Department believe is a transaction that has the potential for tax avoidance or evasion, but lack sufficient information to determine whether the transaction should be identified specifically as a tax avoidance transaction. The TOI category of reportable transactions will apply to transactions entered into on or after November 2, 2006.
The following transactions have been identified and classified by the Internal Revenue Service as “Transactions of Interest”. Transactions that are the same as, or substantially similar to, these transactions are subject to the disclosure requirements of § 6011 (§ 1.6011-4), the material advisor disclosure statement requirements of § 6111 (§§ 301.6111-1, 301.6111-2, 301.6111-3), and the list maintenance requirements of § 6112 (§ 301.6112-1).
Persons required to file material advisor disclosure statements under § 6111 who have failed to do so may be subject to the penalty under § 6707(a). Persons required to maintain lists of investors under § 6112 who have failed to do so (or who fail to provide such lists when requested by the IRS) may be subject to the penalty under § 6708(a). In addition, the IRS may impose penalties on parties involved in these or substantially similar transactions, including the accuracy-related penalty under § 6662.
Notice 2007-72 - August 14, 2007 Contribution of Successor Member Interest - This transaction involves a taxpayer directly or indirectly acquiring certain rights in real property or in an entity that directly or indirectly holds real property, transfers the rights more than one year after the acquisition to an organization described in § 170(c) of the Internal Revenue Code, and claims a charitable contribution deduction under § 170 that is significantly higher than the amount that the taxpayer paid to acquire the rights.
Notice 2007-73 - This transaction uses a grantor trust, and the purported termination and subsequent re-creation of the trust’s grantor trust status, for the purpose of allowing the grantor to claim a tax loss greater than any actual economic loss sustained by the taxpayer or to avoid inappropriately the recognition of gain.
Notice 2008-99 - October 31, 2008 - Potential for Avoidance of Tax Through Sale of Charitable Remainder Trust Interests - This transaction involves a sale or other disposition of all interests in a charitable remainder trust (subsequent to the contribution of appreciated assets to and their reinvestment by the trust), results in the grantor or other noncharitable recipient receiving the value of that person's trust interest while claiming to recognize little or no taxable gain.
Notice 2009-7 - On December 29, 2008 IRS and Treasury identified a new transaction of interest that uses a domestic partnership to prevent the inclusion of subpart F income. In this transaction a U.S. taxpayer that owns controlled foreign corporations (CFCs) that hold stock of a lower-tier CFC through a domestic partnership takes the position that subpart F income of the lower-tier CFC or an amount determined under section 956(a) of the Internal Revenue Code
Notice 2017-10 – - This notice describes certain transactions in which some promoters are syndicating conservation easement transactions that purport to give investors the opportunity to obtain charitable contribution deductions in amounts that significantly exceed the amount invested. The promoters identify a pass-through entity that owns real property, or form a pass-through entity to acquire real property. Additional tiers of pass-through entities may be formed. The promoters then syndicate ownership interests in the pass-through entity or tiered entities that owns the real property, suggesting to prospective investors that they may be entitled to a share of a charitable contribution deduction that equals or exceeds two and one-half times the amount of the investor’s investment. The promoters obtain an inflated appraisal of the conservation easement based on unreasonable conclusions about the development potential of the real property. The entity then donates a conservation easement encumbering the property to a tax-exempt entity. Investors then claim a charitable contribution relying upon the pass-through entity’s holding period.